Hello, Dear readers, today we are going to talk about building construction as we know that it is now necessary to add a structure to real property. The major part of the construction of any building is to decide on the perfect room additions and others. The owner needs a good renovation, a labours team, and the best design teams for these projects. building construction is an ancient activity by humans so to moderate the effect of climate, construction of the building needs a controlled environment.
Civil construction began during the period of primitive humans. first of all, they made ‘caves’ as their shelter to protect themselves from heat, cold and rain but caves were not enough from a security point of view. So huts from the straws and leaves and from there the evolution going on. But from the point of view of comfort and all needs of nowadays civil construction has grown all around.
TYPES OF BUILDINGS
Residential buildings: Buildings which provide the arrangement for sleeping, and cooking. It includes family or single residences, apartments, lodging, hotel, restaurant etc.
Educational buildings: A building which is used for educational purposes like schools, and colleges.
Institutional buildings: institutional buildings are used for purposes like hospitals, sanatoriums, jails, asylum etc.
Assembly buildings: The people gathered for amusement, religious, civil, and travel As theatre, motion picture, houses, restaurants, assembly halls etc.
Business buildings: Business buildings are used for transactions of business and for some other purposes.
Mercantile building: mercantile buildings are used for sale purposes of things ex-shops, stores, markets etc.
Industrial building: All types of products are manufactured pr assemble in industrial buildings
Storage buildings: The buildings which are used to store goods, vehicles, grains etc.
Hazardous buildings: The manufacturing and storage of highly combustible and exclusive materials and product took place in Hazardous buildings.
What Steps should be followed In a building project?
We need to know the start and the end of the building project so we must focus on the plan of the project step by step. Here are the steps given.
Planning first to construct a building there are some major steps to be followed. Like:-
A. It is necessary to develop a building plan.
B. Estimated minimum and the maximum amount to be spent.
C. Selection of the necessary construction team.
Planning of the structure of the building according to the site.
Once the site is viewed by the expert engineer and architect where the building project is to be started then the layout of the building prepared.
The building construction is based on Firstly need to fix the planning of the building looks before starting the construction like The number of rooms floors etc.
What is the labour rate?
It is a fixed cost for the labour and various types of workers according to their work for direct work hours. The cost is also included for the equipment involved directly at the time of construction work.
the amount of physical, mental, and social effort used to produce goods and services in an economy. It supplies the expertise, manpower, and service needed to turn raw materials into finished products and services.
How to calculate labour rates for 1000 sq. ft house
Labour cost for 1000 sq ft house:– in India for normal residential/ commercial/ public buildings, labour cost for house construction is Rs.210 to 300 per square ft.
Labour cost for 1000 square ft house = 210 × 1000 = Rs.210000.
so the labour cost for 1000 sq. ft lies between 2.1 lacks to 3 lacks.
How to calculate labour rate for 1200 sq. ft house.
Labour cost for 1200 sq. ft house: In India for normal residential/ commercial/ public buildings, labour cost for house construction is Rs.210 to 300 per square ft.
Labour cost for 1200 sq. ft house = 210 × 1200= 252000.
So, the labour cost for 1200sq.ft lies between 2.52 lakh to 3.60 lacks.
How to calculate labour rate for 2000 sq ft house
Labour cost for 2000 sq ft house: in India for normal residential/ commercial/ public buildings, labour cost for house construction is Rs.210 to 300 per square ft.
Labour cost for 2000 square ft house =210 × 2000 = 420000 Rupees.
and, 300 × 2000 = Rs 600000.
so the labour cost for 1000 sq. ft lies between 4.2 lacks to 6 lacks.
Labour cost per 1000 bricks In India, the labour cost of brick masonry is ranging from rs.26 to 32 per sq. ft. for normal residential/ commercial/ public buildings.
On the view of calculation, there are 8.58 nos. Bricks in 1 sq ft. Or 9-inch thick brickwork.
So the area of brickwork for 1000 bricks = Total no. Of bricks / no. Of bricks in 1 sq ft.
=1000/8.58 =116 sq ft.
So the labour cost per 1000 bricks would be 1000 × 26 = 3016 INR. Or.116 × 32 = 3712 INR.
So the average labour cost for 1000 bricks varies between 3016 to 3712.
Labour rate for footing concrete: In India Labour rate for footing concrete lies between 10 INR to 16 INR per square foot or 140 INR per square meter. And rs.35 to 40 per cubic foot Or Rs. 1250 to rs. 1400 per cubic meter.
Labour rate for column concrete -In India labour rate for column concrete lies between Rs. 50 to rs. 60 per cubic foot or Rs. 1750 to 2100 per cubic meter (m3).
Labour rate for RCC roof slab and beam concrete – labour rate for RCC roof slab and beam concrete varies between Rs. 50 to 60 per cubic foot (Cft). Or Rs. 1750 to 2100 per cubic meter.
The Labour rate for column concrete The labour rate of column concrete in India is between rs.50 to rs. 60 per cubic foot or Rs. 1750 to 2100 per cubic meter.
Labour rate for RCC roof slab and beam concrete – labour date for RCC roof slab and beam concrete in India also lies between Rs. 50 to rs.60 per cubic foot. Or Rs. 1750 to rs. 2100 per cubic meter.
Labour rate for RCC slope roof concrete
In India, the labour rate for RCC slope roof concrete varies between Rs.70 to rs. 75 per cubic foot. Or Rs.2500 to Rs.2650 per cubic meter.
Labour rate for PCC concrete– The labour rate of PCC concrete varies between rs.30 to rs.35 per sq foot or Rs. 320 to 400 per cubic meter.
Labour rate for bar bending In India– Labour rate of bar bending is between rs.7 to rs.12 per kg or rs.7000 to rs.12000 per ton.
Labour rate for block brick– In India The cost of a block brick wall depends upon the thickness of the block bricks. Its costs lie between rs.20 to rs.35. Thickness- costs.
8 inches = Rs 35 /sq ft.
6 inches = Rs 26/sq ft.
4 inches = Rs 20/sq ft.
Labour rate for plastering – In India The labour rate of plastering is depend upon the thickness and the types of plaster. Its cost varies between rs.12 to rs.25. Thickness of the plaster – costs.
6mm thick ceiling costs range between rs.12 to rs.15 per sq ft. 12 mm internal plaster cost range between rs.15 to rs.18 per sq ft.
20 mm thick external wall cost range between rs.18 to rs.25 per sq ft.
Building structure labour rate
Footing+ plinth level – rs.50/sq ft.(square foot).
First slab cost rs.45/sq ft.
Brickwork costs rs.25/sq ft.
Plaster + finishing cost rs.20/sq ft.
Flooring cost rs.20/sq ft.
Door +f rame & fabrication cost rs.10/sq ft.
Plumbing cost rs.15/sq ft.
Painting + putty cost rs.10/sq ft.
Electrical cost rs.8/sq ft.
Repair, storage or security cost rs.5/sq ft.
Earthwork excavation can be done with the help of labour can do all types of excavation. Labour efficiency depends on the type of soil it will be more chargeable for the complex type of ground. For ordinary soil, the pit of (5 × 5 × 5 =125 Ft3) can remove by two workers in a few hours. If the soil is hard clay and has to loosen with a pickaxe, it could take days to finish the job.
Two labour can dig excavation (5 × 5 × 5=125 Ft3) in a day one will dig and the other will dispose of the material.
It works Days wise, hours-wise, and Unit wise. The excavation capacity of the JCB ranges from 700 cubic ft. to 1200 cubic ft. per hour, depending upon the type of soil & bucket capacity. So JCB can Excavate 5 to 6 Excavation Pit can dig.
Rate- If the work will be for a long time JCB charges 700 to 800 per hour. And, If 3-4 Hours of work-1000 to 1200 Rupees per Hour Cost. It also charges from the starting point to till the site. (if the site is at distance).
3. Chain mount.
Chain Mount is easier to move and more capable to work on than the JCB. So it can dig faster than JCB and can move in the undulation construction sites. Capacity- 50-70 cum/hr based on the experience of the driver. Almost 10-15 Pit can be excavated of (5 × 5 × 5= 125 Ft3) dimension.
Now let us know about the loads on buildings while construction.
1. Dead load
All permanent loads are included in the dead load such as walls, floors, roofs, partitions, ceilings, water tanks etc. and the weight of all other permanent construction or structures and fixtures. It is a permanently untransferrable and immovable load of a structure.
2. Live load
This load is a transferable, moveable and temporary load on the floor. It can be furniture and any other materials stored known as the live load for the buildings. sometimes it is also known as a superimposed load. live load generally uses for design purposes. The live load is assumed to act on each floor of the buildings. In multi-stored buildings, some reductions are allowed in. different floors as it is assumed that all the floors of the building are not simultaneously loaded.
No. Of floors (considered) live load percentage reduction of all the floors (considered).1-0, 2-10, 3-20, 4-30, 5 to 10 -40, above 10–50
3. Wind load
Tall buildings are subjected to wind pressure on their exposed faces and inclined or sloppy roof surfaces. It works on reducing the wind pressure on the windward side and increasing the pressure on the leeward side. The main purpose of this design is that the wind load which acting horizontally at a uniform rate over the entire exposed surface of the windward side.
Wind pressure = P = KV2, Where P =wind pressure in kg/m2, V = Velocity of wind in km/h, and V= 0.0006 (as per building code) coefficient whose value depends upon various factors. such as – wind speed, the temperature of the air, the shape of the structure etc.
Note:- The wind pressure may be neglected if the height of the building is less than its width twice.
4. Snow load
This type of roof has the capacity to retain snow. Actually Northern part of India (mountainous region) faces snowfall. And snowfall loads may be taken as 2.5 kg/m2 per centimetre depth of snow. Snow falls on the roof. In the case of roofs with slopes, more than 50° snow load may be ignored.
5. Earthquake forces
At the time of an earthquake, the whole earth shakes. In this situation, a building experiences vibrations on its base. It can be resolved by taking any three mutually perpendicular directions. The direction of ground vibration is mostly horizontal. So the Engineer is intensive to build an earthquake-resistant house. Although they may get damaged at the time of the earthquake but wouldn’t collapse. Thus, earthquake-resistant buildings are the safety key to people.
In this article, we have discussed the planning of building construction. and about the labour cost according to their work. A building is constructed only once so we need to plan properly and step by step to have a house with comfort and by focusing on the demand of atmosphere at that particular place where the construction work is going to be.